Water Audit

A water audit is a study of the water use of an entity. It starts at the point where water enters the premises and goes up to the point where the waste water is discharged, critically examining all aspects of use. The audit establishes the quantity/volume of water being used, wastage if any, leakages existing, excess use etc., and identifies areas where consumption can be reduced. It critically examines existing treatment systems and practices and recommends changes to improve efficiency and reduce usage. Based on this detailed study and observations, an audit gives recommendations on how to reduce wastage as well as consumption of water, improvements in treatment practices and methods along with cost benefit analyses. It also recommends the setting up of a system to maintain a record of the amount of water entering a system and to keep track of how this water is distributed and used.

Water audit is a systematic process of objectively obtaining a water balance by measuring flow of water from the site of water withdrawal or treatment, through the distribution system, and into areas where it is used and finally discharged. Conducting a water audit involves calculating water balance, water use and identifying ways for saving water.

Water audit involves preliminary water survey and detailed water audit. Preliminary water survey is conducted to collect background information regarding plant activities, water consumption and water discharge pattern and water billing, rates and water cess.

After the analysis of the secondary data collected from the industry, detailed water audit is conducted, involving the following steps:

  • On-site discussion with facility manager and personnel
  • Water system analysis
  • Quantification of baseline water map
  • Monitoring and measurements using pressure and flow meters and various other devices
  • Quantification of inefficiencies and leaks
  • Quantification of water quality loads and discharges
  • Quantification of variability in flows and quality parameters
  • Strategies for water treatment and reuse or direct use

A detailed water balance is finally developed. Water quality requirement at various user areas is mapped, which helps in developing ‘recycle’ and ‘reuse’ opportunities.

The detailed water audit report shall contain the following:

  • Water consumption and wastewater generation pattern
  • Specific water use and conservation
  • Complete water balance of the facility
  • Water saving opportunities
  • Method of implementing the proposals
  • Full description and figures
  • Investment required

Industries can undertake following measures for water conservation:

  • Modernization of industrial process to reduce water consumption
  • Recycling water with a re-circulating cooling system
  • Setting up of norms for water budgeting
  • Ozonation cooling water approach which can result in fivefold reduction in blow down when compared to traditional chemical treatment
  • Reduction in reuse of de-ionized water by eliminating some plenum flushes, converting from a continuous flow to an intermittent flow system and improving control on the use
  • Use of wastewater for gardening
  • Proper processing of effluents to adhere to the norms of disposal.


  • NPC is a not for profit institution under the Ministry of Commerce & Industry, Government of India
  • NPC has a rich pool of well trained full time water audit professionals for conducting water audits
  • Rich experience for providing value added EM services to several international, national as well as unit level clients in consulting as well as
    capacity building
  • PAN India presence, NPC has 12 Regional Directorates in India with HQ at Delhi
  • NPC has carried out the Water Balance Study in the following plants: